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Ceramic tiles and porcelain are both clay-based and can be baked or fired to harden the tiles. The difference is in the clay used and the process of manufacturing Porcelain Patio Tiles which is baked at temperatures up to 1,200°F, which results in a very durable tile. Both porcelain and ceramic tiles are used in homes for floors, countertops, and walls, however porcelain is preferred for areas that are subject to moisture, such as kitchens and bathrooms. Porcelain is also a good option for swimming pools. Porcelain tiles can increase a home's worth.
The tile's intended purpose is the first step in deciding outdoor porcelain tiles. Counter and floor tiles must be impervious to spills as well as staining, and floor tiles should not be slippery. The American National Standards Institute and American Society for Testing Materials test the tile for the absorption of fluids, hardness chemical resistance, as well as other aspects and issue ratings for use.
Find the Class
Porcelain tiles are rated in accordance with their resistance to wear and abrasion. Class 1 is not suitable for floors or use in harsh conditions. Class 2 and 3 are suitable for kitchens and bathrooms that have moderate to light traffic. The most common class 4 is for houses with medium to high traffic like entryways, hallways and kitchens that are busy. Class 5, which is the most prestigious is designed for high traffic and commercial uses.
Glazed or unglazed
Unglazed and glazed ceramics are readily available. Unglazed tiles are durable and has a consistent shade throughout and will retain color even as the surface wears. There are a variety of alternatives for unglazed tiles from rough to polished. Glazed porcelain acts as a layer of protection on top of the tiles. It is available in many colors and decorative patterns. Glazed porcelain may have either a shiny or matte surface.
Verify Absorbency and Slippage
Tiles for bathrooms, kitchens or any other flooring that is susceptible to moisture or porcelain used in and around swimming pools need to be nonabsorbent so water and other fluids do not get into the tile and stain it. The tiles should be non-slip and have a coefficient of friction of 0.06 or greater. This is the measurement of the difficulty to move an object across the surface of a tile.
Select the correct color
Color and design are obviously essential, since porcelain tiles last for an extended period of time, and any changes will require replacing tile. Unglazed and glazed porcelain come in a variety of colors and usually have ornamentation or apex. The size of the tiles is another element; floor tiles generally are largerthan counter tiles, while floor tiles are smaller and wall tiles can be any size. Porcelain tiles also come in various shapes that can be laid out in patterns.
The selection of porcelain tile is extensive, with different designs and finishes that can be tailored to fit any space. It can be used for flooring or countertops, this durable material can last for many years and add style to any home.
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Biocides are chemicals which can be used to stop or treat illness from spreading in many areas of our daily lives. They are used in drinking water and wastewater, feed for livestock, surfaces, and much more. They are effective when utilized correctly, and some of them can even help to combat resistance. It is vital to keep in mind, however, that there are numerous reasons to be cautious about the use of biocides.
Biocides are resistant to resistance
The use of biocides in the health care setting and in a wide range of consumer goods has increased over recent years, which has caused concerns over the resistance of bacteria to these chemicals. The use of biocide offers a wide range of uses, from sterilization to antisepsis. However, there has not been much research done to find out if the wide use of such products is a factor in the development of resistance by microbes to antimicrobials.
Biocides are present in a variety of products, such as cosmetics, medical devices, and disinfectants. They are also found in the natural world. Although they have been used in laboratory tests to identify microbial resistance in some cases but their practical application in the real world is not yet fully understood.
There are many factors that can contribute to resistance to bacterial infections. These include inadequate contact with biocide, physiological adaptation or genetic factors.
The surfaces must be cleaned
Biocides are crucial to prevent infections in hospitals. There are a variety of ways in which they can be used. These include sterilizing medical equipment, antisepsis, and disinfection of surfaces. It is not recommended to use them. Inappropriate usage of oxidizing biocides could cause the growth of resistant microorganisms and a decrease in patient health.
The biocide's concentration is the primary element in its capacity to eliminate bacteria. For Mycobacterium bovis the minimum concentration required is 1 % sodium hypochlorite. There are various concentration exponents for different bacteria. Therefore, the concentration of the biocide should be adjusted according to the effectiveness of the treatment.
A variety of household products contain Biocide chemicals for example, like soaps, laundry detergents, and toothpastes. Certain products may be contaminated by blood or saliva therefore make sure you clean them thoroughly prior to using.
Animal feed protection
Biocides can be used to eliminate bacteria and mould. Biocides also serve as animal feed protection against disease as well as insects. However, they can also cause serious harm to human and environmental health. They are a serious threat to health and safety. products should be properly controlled, as is their removal.
There are many commercial biocides which can be utilized to control pest infestations and prevent disease. These chemicals are typically used in pesticides and disinfectants. They are also available for personal and professional use. There are four main categories of biocides: preservatives, disinfectants, main pest control and other biocidal substances.
The EU has introduced the Biocidal Product Regulation (BPR) to regulate biocides in the food industry. The law was previously known as the Biocidal Products Directive. It came into force on 17 July 2012. The regulation requires that a biocidal product be approved by a competent authority.
Treatment of wastewater and drinking water
Biocides are chemicals that are utilized to treat wastewater as well as drinking water. They kill the bacteria that can cause illness. They can also be added to foods items and other products to stop bacteria from developing.
The most common types of disinfectants are alcohol-based hand-rubs as well as the quaternary ammonium compounds. There are , however, more effective and efficient alternatives. Examples include ozone, and chlorine dioxide are being used more often.
A variety of factors influence the efficacy of treatment strategies. They include the duration of the contact, the concentration and compatibility of the biocide as well as the pH of the raw water, as well as the effectiveness against microbes. These tests will tell you if the treatment is effective or not.
As well as preventing spread of microbial pathogens biocides are essential in cleaning and disinfecting farms' buildings and equipment. This is crucial for the fish farming industry.
Synergistic effects from combining two or more biocides
Synergistic effects of combining two or more biocides are not new. These compounds are often utilized in industries, agriculture and in medical research. They have been the subject of a variety of research studies, from the theoretical to the practical. Some of the findings are quite surprising.
Biocides are considered to be a synergistic impact when the fractional inhibition level of the biocides is higher than one. Synergy definitions can be complex and requires the consideration of several factors.
In the field of antimicrobial synergy, there are a variety of methods to determine synergy. For example, a time-to-kill test measures the amount of microbial activity of a mix over a certain period of time. This test can be laborious and may not be appropriate for all applications.